Wednesday, December 12, 2012

Into the City

Yair Assaf-Shapira

One of the key characteristics of a major city is its force of attraction, or the number of non-residents who enter the city. We usually measure a city’s force of attraction by the number of employees who come into the city for work – the commuters who are characteristic of any metropolis. But people come into a major city for a variety of purposes, including studies, culture, “errands,” and more. As it turns out, working commuters appear not to be the majority of non-residents who come into Jerusalem. This conclusion emerges from an examination of the number of vehicles that enter the city.

During the years 2009-2010, a total of 69,000 of Jerusalem’s employees were non-residents; that is, they entered the city for the purpose of work. But traffic statistics reveal that the number of vehicles entering the city daily was much higher. In 2011 the number was 140,000 vehicles daily (Sunday through Thursday), and of course some of these vehicles contained more than one person. This number refers to all hours in a 24-hour period.

On regular weekdays, the road with the highest volume of traffic among Jerusalem’s entryways is Highway 1 from the direction of Mevasseret Zion, by which 59,000 vehicles enter the city. Additional roads by which large numbers of vehicles enter are Highway 1 from the direction of Ma’ale Adummim (24,000), Highway 404 (extension of Highway 443) from the north (18,000), and Highway 60 from the direction of Gush Etzion (13,000).

It is important to note that some of the vehicles entering the city constitute “through traffic,” meaning that they continue to a different destination. But we may presume that in Jerusalem (as opposed to Tel Aviv, for example) this is a small portion of the traffic.

Another question that might be explored through traffic statistics is the volume of commuters to Jerusalem compared to commuters from Jerusalem. For these purposes, we will examine the stretch of Highway 1 between Shoresh and Sha’ar Hagai. The statistics reveal that during morning hours (7am – 10am) the number of vehicles traveling towards Jerusalem is higher than the number traveling towards the plains region (between the Judean hills and the seashore) by 260-650 vehicles/hour. For example, at 9am, on average 2,660 vehicles/hour travel towards Jerusalem, while 2,010 travel towards the plains. In the afternoon (between 1pm and 5pm), the number of travelers towards the plains region is higher than the number of those traveling towards Jerusalem by 250-600 vehicles/hour. For example, at 3pm, an average of 2,930 vehicles travel towards the plains, compared to 2,340 vehicles traveling towards Jerusalem during that hour. Thus it turns out that during the typical hours for commuting to work, there is more traffic towards Jerusalem than the opposite way, whereas the situation is reversed during the typical hours for commuting from work.



Source of data: Traffic statistics for non-municipal roads, the Central Bureau of Statistics
The 2012 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies 




Sunday, November 11, 2012

How Do Jerusalemites Spend Their Leisure Time?

Aviel Yelinek

This year the annual social survey published by the Central Bureau of Statistics included questions that address the culture of recreation among Israel’s residents. Survey participants were asked whether they had attended theater plays, entertainment shows, or children’s plays during the past year, among other questions. The data reveal that only 28% of Jerusalem’s residents attended one of the types of shows listed above during the past year. This figure is much lower than the percentage among residents of Tel Aviv-Jaffa (63%), Rishon LeZion and Petach Tikva (59%), and Haifa (52%).

The low rate of attendance is a function of the composition of the city’s population. For example, within the Jewish sector, only 9% of Jerusalemites who define themselves as ultra-orthodox (haredi) attended cultural events of the sort listed above, as compared to 46% of religious residents and 68% of secular residents. Rates of attendance differ between Jerusalem’s Jewish and Arab residents as well. Among Jews the rate of attendance was 38%, whereas among Arabs it was only 7%.

Likewise, the percentage of Jerusalem’s moviegoers is influenced by the composition of the city’s population. The percentage of moviegoers among Jerusalem’s residents was 25%, lower than the rate in Tel Aviv (66%), Rishon LeZion (55%), Haifa (50%), or Petach Tikva (49%).

And what about book reading? A total of 63% of Jerusalemites said that they had read books during their leisure time over the previous year, lower than the figure for Petach Tikva (64%), Rishon LeZion (65%), Haifa (67%), or Tel Aviv-Jaffa (72%). The extent of religious observance among Jews does not especially influence the percentage of book readers, which is similar across the various groups. In contrast, there is a significant difference between Jerusalem’s Jews and Arabs on this question: the percentage of Jews who had read books during the previous year was 72%, higher than the figure for Arabs, which was 43%.

It is interesting to note that among Jerusalemites who reported reading books, 40% devoted two hours per week to book reading, 29% devoted between two and five hours weekly, 12% devoted between five and ten hours, and 10% spent ten or more hours per week reading books. An additional 9% reported that they do not read books on a regular basis. 



Source: Analysis of data from the Central Bureau of Statistics’ 2011 social survey

Sunday, October 14, 2012

Students and the City

Eitan Bluer

In recent years the Municipality of Jerusalem and the Jerusalem Development Authority have been making great efforts to attract students to the city, to study and to settle down and live in Jerusalem upon completion of their studies. The number of students enrolled in institutions for higher education in Jerusalem has been increasing over the years. During 2010-2011 approximately 36,500 students studied in Jerusalem, constituting 15% of all the students in Israel, an increase of 3% over 2009-2010, when 35,600 students studied in Jerusalem, and an increase of 26% over 1999-2000. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is the higher education institution with the greatest number of students in the city. This number stood at 20,400 in 2010-2011 and constituted 56% of all the students in higher education institutions in Jerusalem. A total of 10,800 studied at academic colleges in the city (30%), and 5,300 at teacher-training colleges (14%). Of all the students enrolled in higher education institutions in Jerusalem during 2010-2011, 34% resided in the city, 6% resided in other localities within the Jerusalem District, 18% resided in the Central District, 12% in the Judea and Samaria District, 9% in the Tel Aviv District, 5% in the Haifa District, and the rest (15%) in the northern and southern peripheries.

The students who reside in Jerusalem can be divided on the basis of whether they attend higher education institutions within the city or outside of the city. The number of students who resided in Jerusalem in 2010-2011 measured 22,100. Of these, 12,300 students resided and studied in Jerusalem, while the rest (9,800 students residing in Jerusalem) attended higher education institutions outside of Jerusalem. Bachelor’s degree (first degree) students who resided in Jerusalem tended towards the humanities more than the general population of students in the country. The percentage of students who resided in Jerusalem during 2010-2011 and studied subjects within the humanities measured 36%, higher than the percentage for Israel (26%). In contrast, the percentage of students who resided in Jerusalem and studied subjects within the social sciences (27%) was lower than the average for Israel (34%). 



Source: Analysis of data from the Central Bureau of Statistics

Thursday, October 11, 2012

Which City Has the Most Construction?

Yair Assaf-Shapira

Recently Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Interior Affairs released the annual publication “Local Authorities,” making it possible to draw comparisons among the various local authorities in Israel along several dimensions. One of these dimensions is construction. The data here relate to the year 2010 and include municipalities and local councils.

The authority with the largest number of housing units whose construction was completed was Jerusalem, where 1,810 apartments were built. More than 1,000 apartments were constructed in three additional authorities: Netanya (1,530), Tel Aviv-Jaffa (1,520), and Petah Tikva (1,030).

Although Jerusalem has the greatest number of apartments among the authorities, the picture changes when the Jerusalem region is compared to the Tel Aviv region. While in the Tel Aviv region – defined as the Tel Aviv and Central Districts – a total of 13,940 apartments were constructed (51% of all apartments whose construction was completed), in the Jerusalem region – defined as the Jerusalem and Judea and Samaria Districts – only 3,460 apartments were constructed (13%). Moreover, in the Judea and Samaria District – defined as the environs of Jerusalem – only about half the apartments constructed were in the immediate vicinity of the city. It appears, therefore, that there is a concentration of construction in the center of the country. This is also apparent if we examine the correlation between completion of construction of apartments and the distance from the boundaries of Tel Aviv-Jaffa. Sixty-six percent of all apartments were within a distance of 50 kilometers from the boundaries of Tel Aviv.

It is also important to examine the number of apartments completed in correlation to the number of existing apartments within the local authorities. This examination indicates the extent of change that a region is undergoing. A comparison found that in Jerusalem, 9 apartments were completed for every 1,000 existing housing units – slightly more than in Tel Aviv-Jaffa (8). Overall, the localities surrounding the city are undergoing more dramatic changes than the city itself. For example, in Givat Ze’ev, 49 apartments were constructed for every 1,000 existing apartments, 24 in Ma’ale Adumim, 18 in Beit-Shemesh, and 13 in Abu-Gosh. Exceptions were Beitar Illit and Mevasseret Zion, where 4 and 2 apartments (respectively) were constructed for every 1,000 existing apartments.



Source of data:  “Local Authorities in Israel,” Central Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Interior Affairs 

Monday, September 24, 2012

Workers of the World Unite?

Lior Lehrs

The Histadrut Klalit (General Federation of Laborers) was established in 1920 as a cornerstone of the path to statehood, and to this day it has remained the largest workers’ union in Israel. In 1930, Histadrut Ha’Ovdim HaLeumit (the National Labor Federation) was also established, and in 2007 yet another workers’ organization, named “Power to Laborers,” was founded after criticism was voiced about the functioning of the Histadrut Klalit. The purpose of these workers’ unions was to protect workers’ rights, take measures to improve employment conditions, and conduct negotiations over collective agreements.

According to data of the New Histadrut Klalit (from March 2012), the organization has a total of 660,187 members. The Jerusalem region has 66,537 registered Histadrut members, constituting 10% of the total membership. This percentage is double the figure for the Tel Aviv region (5%) and Rishon LeZion region (5%) – a discrepancy that we can probably attribute to the higher percentage of public-sector workers in Jerusalem compared to these cities. The portion that the region of Haifa, known as the “City of Laborers,” contributes to Histadrut membership is comparable to that of Jerusalem, at 9% of all members.

The Histadrut comprises several professional unions. The largest union is the Union of Local Authorities (15% of Histadrut membership), followed by the State Employees’ Union (12%), and workers in agriculture, chemistry, and security (9%). In contrast, professions with the lowest unionization figures include those engaged in creation and expression (1 Histadrut member), communications workers and artists (3 members), and dental hygienists (7 members). The data indicate that 71% of Histadrut Klalit members were born in Israel, while 20% are long-time immigrants and 9% are new immigrants. Distribution by age indicates that 24% of Histadrut members are young people up to age 34, while 52% are in the 35-59 age range, and 19% are 60 and older.

During the Histadrut elections of May 2012, a total of 66.6% voted for Ofer Eini as chairman, compared to 33.3% for Eitan Cabel. In the Jerusalem region support for Ofer Eini measured 69.1%. In Jerusalem the rate of support for Eini’s list for the Histadrut council (68.3%) was higher than the national average (64.9%) as well as the rates of support in the regions of Tel Aviv (56.7%), Haifa (62.7%), and Rishon LeZion (64.1%).

 

Source: Data of the New Histadrut Klalit

Tuesday, September 4, 2012

In Jerusalem Women Earn More

Eitan Bluer

Jerusalem’s job market is characterized by large salary discrepancies among the various population groups. In addition, there are large discrepancies in the rate of participation in the workforce among the various groups. Relatively low rates of participation in the workforce are found among haredi (ultra-orthodox) men and among Arab women. These characteristics have created a unique phenomenon in Jerusalem, with a relatively low gap between the average monthly salaries of men and of women, but a large gap in their average number of work hours. In 2010 the average (gross) monthly salary of an employee in Jerusalem was NIS 7,300, which was lower than the figures for Tel Aviv (NIS 10,200) and Israel (NIS 8,600). An in-depth analysis of salary by gender indicates a gap of 29% between the average (gross) monthly salary of men in Jerusalem (NIS 8,100) and that of women (NIS 6,300). This gap was lower than the figures for Tel Aviv and Israel, where the average salary of men was higher than that of women by 51%.

The opposite pattern exists with respect to the gap between the number of average weekly work hours of men and that of women. The average number of weekly work hours of men in Jerusalem (44 hours per week) was higher than that of women (33 hours per week) by 33%. This gap was higher than the figure for Tel Aviv, where the average number of weekly work hours of men was higher than the figure for women by 13%. In Israel the gap was 25%.

These two phenomena have created a situation in which the average (gross) hourly wage of women in Jerusalem (NIS 43) was higher than that of men (NIS 41) by 5%. This differs from the situation in Israel, where the average hourly wage of women (NIS 43) was lower than that of men (NIS 51) by 16%, and in Tel Aviv, where the average hourly wage of women (NIS 50) was lower than that of men (NIS 59) by 15%. 



Data source: Income Survey 2012, Central Bureau of Statistics

Monday, August 20, 2012

The Young Renter

Yair Assaf-Shapira

During the years 2009-2010 (on average), among 431,000 residents of Jerusalem aged 20 and above, 262,000 (61%) lived in apartments they owned, and 133,000 (31%) lived in rented apartments. The rest had other living arrangements, such as an apartment belonging to a family member or friend. The percentage of renters in Jerusalem was comparable to the figure for Haifa (30%), higher than the figure for Israel (23%), and lower than the figure for Tel Aviv-Jaffa (41%).

As expected, the percentage of renters is not the same across the age groups. The highest percentage was measured among Jerusalem residents aged 20-29, of whom 42% lived in rentals, much higher than the figure for Israel (29%). As age increases, the percentage of renters decreases, but while the percentage of renters among residents aged 30-39 (40%) was only slightly lower than the figure for those aged 20-29, in the age group 40-54 the percentage dropped by about half (22%), and among those aged 55 and above it dropped slightly more (18%). Only in this group is the figure comparable to that of Israel (17%).

A large variance exists with respect to duration of residence between residents who rent an apartment and those who reside in an apartment that they own. While among renters in Jerusalem about a third (34%) had been residing in the apartment (at the time of the survey) for a period of 6 months to 1 year, among those who live in apartments they own only 6% indicated that this was the period of time they had been residing in their apartment. A residential period of 1.5-5 years was also more characteristic of renters (32%) than homeowners (15%). A residential period of 5.5-10 years was characteristic of both groups equally (16%), and the percentage of those residing for longer periods of time was much higher among homeowners (30%-34%) than among renters (7%-12%).

It is customarily assumed that apartment renters are people who cannot purchase an apartment, but the data indicate that a significant portion of renters in Jerusalem (14%) have another apartment that they own. A similar percentage was measured in Haifa (14%) and Israel (15%), and a slightly higher percentage was measured in Tel Aviv-Jaffa (18%).



Data source: The 2009 and 2010 social surveys of the Central Bureau of Statistics

Monday, August 6, 2012

In Good Faith

Aviel Yelinek

Jerusalem’s population is diverse, comprising groups with varying characteristics, including groups that differ from one another in the extent of their religious observance.

The social survey that the Central Bureau of Statistics conducts within the population aged 20 and above reveals that during the years 2008-2010 (on average), 31% of the Jews in Jerusalem defined themselves as traditional, 29% as haredi (ultra-orthodox), 21% as religious, and 19% as secular. The percentage of Jews aged 20 and above in Jerusalem who defined themselves as haredi was the highest among the large cities of Israel and was significantly higher than the percentage of haredim in Israel (8%). In comparison, the percentage of haredim in Tel Aviv was 2%, in Haifa 3%, and in Rishon LeZion only 1%. The percentage of religious Jews in Jerusalem (21%) was also higher than the average for Israel (10%). The percentage of traditional Jews (traditional-religious and traditional-not-so-religious) in Jerusalem stood at 31%, lower than the average for Israel (39%) and the lowest of the major cities in Israel. And what about the secular? The percentage of secular Jews in Jerusalem (19%) was much lower than the average for Israel (42%) and was the lowest of the major cities in Israel. The percentage of secular Jews in Tel Aviv, for example, was the highest among the major cities, measuring 59%, compared to 58% for Haifa, 47% for Rishon LeZion, and 32% for Ashdod.

Within the non-Jewish sector as well, the extent of religious observance in Jerusalem was higher than the average for Israel and for its major cities. The data reveal that 14% of non-Jewish Jerusalemites defined themselves as very religious, compared to 60% who defined themselves as religious, 21% as not so religious, and only 5% as not religious. In comparison, only 7% of the non-Jews in Israel defined themselves as very religious (half of the figure for Jerusalem), 46% defined themselves as religious, 26% as not so religious, and 21% as not religious (four times the figure for Jerusalem). In Haifa and Tel Aviv the extent of religious observance of non-Jews was especially low. The percentage of very religious non-Jews in these cities measured 1%-2% and the percentage of religious non-Jews measured 23% and 22% respectively.

 

Source: Analysis of data from the social survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics 

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

The Cellular Spring

Lior Lehrs 

The first cellular phone company began operating in Israel in 1986, and since that time the mobile phone appears to have significantly changed our lifestyle. The cellular communications market in Israel has recently been placed on the public agenda following a series of reforms and changes in this area that are intended to increase market competition and lower prices for the consumer. 

According to data of the 2010 social survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics, 91% of Israel’s residents had a mobile phone. This figure compares to 85% in 2006 and 77% in 2002. The percentage of mobile phone owners in Jerusalem was identical to the national average (91%) and slightly lower than the figure for Tel Aviv (92%), Haifa (93%), and Rishon LeZion (96%). The survey results indicate that the percentage of Jerusalem residents who made use of other functions of the mobile phone was lower than the percentage for other major cities in Israel. For example, the data indicate that the percentage of Jerusalemites who sent a text message during the month preceding the survey (among mobile phone owners) was 54%, compared to 79% among Tel Aviv residents and 66% in Haifa. The results were consistent for Internet use through the mobile phone: 12% in Jerusalem, as opposed to 23% in Tel Aviv and 21% in Haifa. Regarding camera use through the mobile phone, the results were 44% in Jerusalem, as opposed to 58% in Tel Aviv and 52% in Haifa. 

The data indicate that a correlation exists between level of religious observance and possession of a mobile phone in Israel. Within the Jewish population, the percentage of cell phone owners among the secular (95%) was higher than the percentage among the traditional religious (91%), the religious (90%), or the Haredi (86%). Within the non-Jewish population as well, the percentage of mobile phone owners among the non-religious (92%) was higher than among the religious (90%) or very religious (67%). Analysis by age group also reveals differences. For example, within the age group of 20-44 years, the percentage of mobile phone owners exceeded 95%. Among those aged 65-74 years the percentage was 81%, and for those aged 75 and above the percentage was 61%. 




Statistical source: Analysis of data from the social survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics

Thursday, July 5, 2012

Aliyah to Jerusalem

Eitan Bluer 

Ever since the State of Israel was founded, aliyah (Jewish immigration) to Israel has been regarded as one of the significant symbols of the state’s independence. Jerusalem, as the center of the Jewish world, constituted a source of attraction for new immigrants from around the world. During the past decade, the percentage of new immigrants who settled in Jerusalem, out of all immigrants to Israel, has very much increased. In 2011, a total of 2,200 new immigrants, accounting for 13% of all immigrants to Israel, settled in Jerusalem as their first place of residence. The number of immigrants who settled in Jerusalem in 2011 was higher than the numbers for Tel Aviv – 800 (5%) – and Haifa – 1,200 (7%). 

Jerusalem has less power of attraction for immigrants with limited resources. During the 1990s, therefore, when large numbers of immigrants arrived from former Soviet states, only 7% of all the immigrants to Israel chose to settle in Jerusalem. The changing characteristics of immigrants to Israel, and in particular the increase in percentage of immigrants from wealthy states (especially the United States and Western Europe) contributed to a significant increase since 2002 in the percentage of immigrants who choose Jerusalem as their first place of residence in Israel. In 2011, 36% of immigrants who settled in Jerusalem came from the United States, 20% from France, and only 12% from Russia. 

The socio-economic characteristics of immigrants who arrived during the 1990s and of those who arrived during the 2000s have influenced their choice of neighborhood. The preferred neighborhoods among immigrants who settled in Jerusalem during the 1990s were Pisgat Ze’ev, where immigrants who arrived during the 1990s accounted for 17% of the population, Neve Ya’akov (15%), and the French Hill (14%). In contrast, the preferred neighborhoods among immigrants who arrived during the first decade of the 2000s, most of whom came from the United States and France, were Talbiyeh, where new immigrants accounted for 14% of the population, the city center (14%), and Rehavia (13%). 



Sources: Press Release: “Immigrants to Jerusalem,” the Central Bureau of Statistics and the 2012 Statistical Yearbook of the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies 

Sunday, June 10, 2012

to Bank or not to Bank?


Yair Assaf-Shapira 

At the start of 2012, a total of 1,421 bank branches operated within the State of Israel (including branches in Jewish settlements in the territories of Judea and Samaria). Thus there were 18.1 branches per 100,000 persons within the population of the country, which reached 7,837,000 at the end of 2011. This figure reflects the accessibility to financial services, and it is lower than that of most European countries and the United States.

The Netherlands, for example, has 23 branches per 100,000 persons, the US has 36, France has 43, Italy has 67, and Portugal has 76. Some European states, however, have a low ratio, such as Austria with 11.

The distribution of bank branches in relation to population within various cities can serve as an indication of the centrality of the city in relation to other cities and its environs, as well as the quality of service the banks provide to the city’s public.

A total of 138 commercial bank branches operate in Jerusalem, constituting 10% of the total for Israel. Similar to the national average, 17.5 branches existed for every 100,000 persons in the city, which had a total of 788,000 residents (at the close of 2010).

Salient among the cities with populations of 50,000 or more (at the close of 2010) was Tel Aviv, with 65 branches per 100,000 persons. This is a result of Tel Aviv-Jaffa being the financial center of Israel and a metropolitan center that provides services to a population significantly larger than the number of city residents. Other cities operating a large number of bank branches relative to their population are Ramat Gan (45), Kfar Saba (27), and Ra’anana (26).

Some banking services are also available at post office branches. Jerusalem has 51 post office branches, that is, 6.5 branches per 100,000 persons. This number is low relative to Israel’s main cities. For example, in Tel Aviv-Jaffa, 13.1 branches operate for every 100,000 persons, 11.6 in Haifa, 10.4 in Ashdod, and 10.2 in Be’er Sheva.

 



Data sources: Bank of Israel; International Monetary Fund – Financial Access Survey; the Central Bureau of Statistics; the Israel Post Office.


Monday, May 28, 2012

Good Night Jerusalem

Aviel Yelinek

Much has been written about the importance of a good night’s sleep. The optimal length of sleep time varies from one individual to another, but most studies recommend seven to eight hours of sleep for adults. The quality and continuity of sleep are no less important and have an enormous effect on daily functioning and quality of life. The 2010 Social Survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics questioned individuals aged 20 and above about the number of hours they sleep per night and the continuity of their sleep.

The data reveals that almost half of all Jerusalemites sleep fewer than seven hours per night. A total of 5% of Jerusalemites reported that they sleep four or fewer hours per night, 42% reported that they sleep five to six hours per night, 48% reported sleeping seven to eight hours per night, and 5% sleep more than nine hours per night. These statistics are similar to the figures for average hours of sleep among residents of Israel.

And what about quality of sleep? Survey participants were asked whether and how frequently they had trouble falling asleep or sleeping through the whole night. The percentage of Jerusalemites who had trouble falling asleep or sleeping through the whole night on a nightly or nearly nightly basis was 12%. A total of 9% had such difficulties two or three times a week, 13% had difficulties once a week or less often, and 66% had no trouble falling asleep or sleeping through the whole night. Jerusalemites slept better than residents of Haifa, for example, where over a fifth (22%) had trouble falling asleep or sleeping through the whole night, and only slightly more than half (54%) never had such difficulties.

Survey participants who reported having trouble sleeping were asked about the extent to which their sleep problems affected their daily functioning. Of the Jerusalemites with sleep problems, 40% reported that their daily functioning was affected to a large extent or to a very large extent. In comparison, this figure stands at 29% for Haifa residents, 35% for Tel Aviv residents, and 36% for Israel’s residents. 



Source: Analysis of Central Bureau of Statistics data

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Ever-Shrinking Earnings

Eitan Bluer

The level of household income provides a basis for various indices that can be used to measure conditions within cities, including poverty level, socio-economic standing of cities, and so on. The level of household income can also explain why in recent years more and more households with at least one wage earner are unable to break out of the cycle of poverty.

In 2010 Jerusalem had about 194,000 households, of which in approximately 60% the head of household was employed. The average net monthly household income in Jerusalem was NIS 10,700. This figure was 23% lower than the average monthly income per household in Israel (NIS 13,900), 28% lower than the average monthly income in Tel Aviv (NIS 14,800), and 24% lower than the average monthly income in Haifa (NIS 14,100). The principal source for the gross monthly income of Jerusalem households whose head of household was employed was earnings from employment (85%). The other sources of income included capital, property, pensions, social security benefits, and so on. Interestingly, social security benefits constituted 8% of all income in those households headed by salaried employees. This percentage was higher than the figure for Israel (6%), Tel Aviv (4%), and Haifa (5%).

The average household size varies significantly among the major cities. It is important, therefore, to measure the level of income per number of individuals in the households (income per standard person). Jerusalem is characterized by households with a high average number of persons (4.3 persons) compared to Tel Aviv (2.5 persons) and Israel (3.7 persons). A weighted assessment of these statistics reveals that in 2010 the average net monthly income in Jerusalem per standard person measured NIS 3,300. This was 30% lower than the average income for Israel (NIS 4,700), 50% lower than the average for Tel Aviv (NIS 6,600), and 42% lower than the average for Haifa (NIS 5,700). 



Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, Income Survey for 2010



Monday, May 7, 2012

The Educational System of Jerusalem

Lior Lehrs

Jerusalem’s educational system reflects the city’s diverse population and comprises three principal sectors: national and national-religious education, which is managed by the Jerusalem Education Administration within the Municipality (JEA); municipal Arab education, which includes official educational institutions and recognized but unofficial institutions that operate according to the educational curriculum of the Palestinian Authority (also managed by the JEA); and ultra-orthodox educational institutions managed by the Haredi educational division within the Municipality.

According to data from the Jerusalem Municipality, in the 2011-2012 academic year the city’s municipal educational system has 224,650 students. Of these, 43% attend Haredi educational institutions, 31% attend municipal Arab educational institutions, and 26% attend national and national-religious institutions. These statistics do not include students receiving a private Arab education, whose total is estimated at approximately 20,000.

Among students in grades 7-12 (middle and high school), a total of 37% receive a Haredi education, 33% receive a municipal Arab education, and 30% receive a state or state-religious education. At the elementary school level, by comparison, the figure for Haredi students is close (38%), slightly higher for Arab students (38%), and lower for national and religious-national students (24%). Among kindergarten children, the percentage receiving a Haredi education is particularly high – 48% – as compared to the figures for municipal Arab education (28%) and national or national-religious (24%). The percentage of Haredi children in kindergarten is especially high because it is affected by the relatively low percentage of Arab children, many of whom do not attend the municipal kindergartens. A separate analysis of students in the national education system reveals that their percentage decreases in accordance with the following age groups: they represent 19% of the city’s high school students, 15% of junior high school students, 12% of elementary school students, and 10% of kindergarten children.

An analysis of trends over the past 10 years (compared to the 2000-2001 academic year) reveals that the most significant change occurred within the municipal Arab educational sector, where the number of students increased by 126%. This change resulted from the Ministry of Education’s increased recognition of private Arab schools in Jerusalem as “recognized but unofficial institutions,” the construction of new classrooms, which increased the capacities of the schools, and natural population growth. During the same period, the number of students receiving a Haredi education increased by 30%, and within the national and national-religious sector there was a 12% decrease.



Source: Analysis of data of the Municipality of Jerusalem

Monday, April 16, 2012

Family Relations


Inbal Doron

The family unit is undergoing a process of transformation in the modern world. In recent years the public debate surrounding this process and its potential implications for various aspects of society has been increasing. In this context, some interesting statistics regarding the population of Jerusalem are presented here.

According to data of the Central Bureau of Statistics from the end of 2009, a total of 66% of the city’s population (aged 20 and above) were married, whereas 23% were single, 6% were divorced, and 5% were widowed. The percentage of married individuals aged 20 and above in Jerusalem was comparable to the figure for Israel (63%) and much higher than the figure for Tel Aviv (46%). The data indicate that Jerusalemites marry at a young age. Among those aged 20-34 in Jerusalem, about 53% were married (compared to 28% in Tel Aviv). Interestingly, 9% of all married residents of the city were wed before age 24, compared to 4% in Israel and only 1.5% in Tel Aviv.

Divorce rates in Jerusalem were very low. Only 9% of those aged 35 and above in the city were divorced, compared to 16% in Tel Aviv and 14% in Haifa. The percentage of those divorced among the 35+ age group within the Jewish population was higher than the figure for the Arab population: 11% versus 3%, respectively. The percentage of singles within both population groups was identical, at 8%.

According to data of the National Council for the Child from the end of 2010, Jerusalem had 7,900 single-parent families, which included about 14,000 children under age 18. These children accounted for approximately 4% of all the city’s children. This is lower than the figure for Israel, in which 9% of all children belong to single-parent families. In Tel Aviv the percentage of children within single-parent families was especially high, measuring 17%. 





Sources: Analysis of Central Bureau of Statistics data, Statistical Yearbook of the National Council for the Child.

Monday, April 2, 2012

Don't worry be happy

Aviel Yelinek

Many people experience stress or worry at some point in their lives. At times this is a natural reaction of the body as it prepares itself to be tested or to face important events, but in many cases it is a matter of significant emotional overload that could continue for a long time and undermine quality or life or even day-to-day functionality.

The 2010 Social Survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics questioned individuals aged 20 and above about the stress and worry they feel in the course of their daily lives. The questions focused on the feelings of the respondents during the 12 months preceding the survey.

The data reveal that 19% of Jerusalemites frequently felt stressed. This was lower than the figure for Israel (24%), Tel Aviv (26%), and Haifa (35%). A particularly striking statistic is the percentage of Jerusalemites who felt no stress: 39%. This was significantly higher than the figure for Israel (23%), Haifa (21%), and Tel Aviv (15%). Assessment by gender reveals that women tend to feel stress more than men. Among women in Israel, 29% reported that they frequently felt stressed, compared to 19% of men. Likewise, 19% of women reported that they did not feel any stress, compared to 28% of men.

Another interesting question focused on the effect of worry on quality of sleep. The percentage of Jerusalemites who reported that worries frequently disturbed their sleep stood at 11%. This was lower than the figure for Tel Aviv (14%), Israel (15%), and Haifa (20%). Likewise, the percentage of Jerusalemites who reported no sleep disturbances due to worries was 46%, which is higher than the figure for Haifa (41%), Israel (40%), and Tel Aviv (37%). Interestingly, the percentage of women in Israel who reported that worries frequently disturb their sleep measured 17%, which is higher than the figure for men (11%). Accordingly, the percentage of women who reported that their sleep was never disrupted by worries stood at 33%, which lower than the figure for men (48%).



Source: Analysis of Central Bureau of Statistics data

Monday, March 19, 2012

Pension for the Masses


Lior Lehrs

As of January 2008, it is obligatory to provide pension insurance to every employee in Israel. This obligation follows from a July 2007 collective agreement signed between the Histadrut (national labor union) and the Coordinating Bureau of Economic Organizations. The agreement was intended to remedy the hardship faced by thousands of members of the workforce whose employers did not provide pension plans to ensure their financial future. The agreement obligates every employer in Israel to provide a pension plan for its employees and establishes the percentages that the employer and employee must contribute to the pension.

The Central Bureau of Statistics' Social Survey data indicate a significant increase in the percentage of employees in Israel who have a pension plan (retirement fund, directors' insurance, or subsidized long-term savings plan) over the course of the years since this change. According to the data, the percentage of employees in Israel with a pension plan rose from 64% in 2007 to 80% in 2010. In Jerusalem, 56% had pension plans in 2007 and 66% in 2010. The percentage of Jerusalemites with pension plans in 2010 was lower than the figure for residents of Tel Aviv (85%), Rishon LeZion (82%), and Haifa (80%).

The data indicate a clear correlation between income level and percentage of employees with a pension plan. For example, among employees with an individual net monthly income of NIS 2,000 or below, only 42% had such a plan, whereas among those with an income NIS 7,500 or above, the percentage of pension plan owners was over 95%. There are also significant differences among the employees of different sectors. The percentage of pension plan owners is high among employees in the electricity and water sector (96%), public services (95%), and banking, insurance, and finance (93%). In contrast, low percentages were recorded among employees of hospitality and food services (48%), construction (51%), and agriculture (60%).

Analysis of the conditions facing employees of human resources agencies ("temp agencies") reveals that the percentage of pension plan owners among these employees rose from 40% in 2007 to 62% in 2010, but is still lower than the figure for all employees (80%).



Source: Analysis of Central Bureau of Statistics data

Monday, March 5, 2012

Business As Usual


Inbal Doron

An examination of the number of active businesses in a city and their survivability rates over time provides an indication of the strength of the city's business sector. Identifying those sectors of the economy in which businesses have higher survivability rates can also be instructive.

In 2010, approximately 34,700 businesses operated in Jerusalem. This was lower than the 2010 figure for Tel Aviv, where about 64,700 businesses operated, and higher than for Haifa, where about 20,000 businesses operated. The economic sectors with the highest numbers of businesses in Jerusalem were real estate and business services (26%), trade (20%), health, education, and welfare (14%), and transportation and communications (11%). These sectors are more dynamic than others, with a large number of business openings and closings registered annually. During 2010, a total of 912 new businesses opened in the sector of real estate and business services, representing 28% of all new businesses. During the same year, 616 businesses from this sector closed, representing 23% of all the businesses that closed. In the trade sector, 727 new businesses opened (23%) and 656 closed (24%) during this year. In total, more than 3,200 new businesses opened in Jerusalem and about 2,700 closed during 2010. These numbers were lower than the figures for Tel Aviv, where more than 6,300 businesses opened and about 4,450 closed.

What are the chances of survival for a new business? The data indicate that of all the new businesses opened in Israel in 2005, approximately half closed by 2010. A similar trend took place in Jerusalem, where the survivability rate of a new business was 89% in the first year, 75% in the second year, 65% in the third year, 59% in the fourth year, and 52% in the fifth year.

Rates of survivability vary among the different business sectors. Jerusalem businesses in the education and health sector and in the banking and finance sector enjoyed relatively high survivability rates, with 67% surviving past five years. In contrast, the survivability rate of businesses in the hospitality and food services' sector that had opened in 2005 measured only 35% in 2010.




Source: Analysis of Central Bureau of Statistics data

Sunday, February 19, 2012

Health Insured and Health Ensured

Aviel Yelinek

Since the entry into force of the National Health Insurance Law in 1994, Israel’s residents have the right to register with one of the state’s Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO, in Hebrew – Kupat Holim, “sick fund”), which include a variety of healthcare services and medicines as designated and periodically updated by the Ministry of Health in its “basket” of healthcare services. This “basket” defines which healthcare services and medicines must be provided by the HMO to all of its insured members. The insurance is funded by means of a healthcare tax based on a percentage of the monthly income of every employee. Health insurance does not cover all of the medicines or treatments available through modern medicine. For this reason the HMOs themselves, as well as private companies, offer supplementary insurance aimed at partial or complete coverage for treatments and medicines that are not included in the “basket” of healthcare services.

According to the Social Survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2010 a total of 76% of Israel’s residents had supplementary health insurance from one of the HMOs. The percentage of Jerusalemites with supplementary insurance was 60%, which was significantly lower than the figure for residents of Tel Aviv (88%), Rishon LeZion (87%), and Haifa (83%). The data also indicates that 41% of Israelis had disability insurance as well through one of the HMOs. The percentage of Jerusalemites with disability insurance was only 21%, which was significantly lower than the figure for residents of Tel Aviv (59%), Rishon LeZion (47%), and Haifa (45%). The percentage of individuals with disability insurance rises as the age of the insured population rises, and therefore, the low percentage of Jerusalem’s disability-insured population is most likely a result of the city’s high percentage of children under the age of 18.

Interestingly, 28% of Israelis had private health insurance outside the framework of the HMOs. The percentage of Jerusalemites with private health insurance was only 18%, which was lower than the figure for residents of Rishon LeZion (41%), Haifa (35%), and Tel Aviv (32%).


Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Networked

Yair Assaf-Shapira

The Internet is used for a variety of purposes: information seeking, email correspondence, contact with friends, and more. Presumably some of you are even reading this column through the Web. Use of the Internet is relatively widespread, with 67% of Israel’s residents aged 20 and above having used it during 2010 and with usage increasing from year to year. In 2002, the first year during which the Central Bureau of Statistics' Social Survey was conducted, it was found that 32% of Israel’s residents aged 20+ had used the Internet, and in 2005 a total of 47% of Israel’s residents aged 20+ used the Internet.

During the years 2009-2010, a total of 52% of Jerusalem residents aged 20+ used the Internet. There is a significant difference between Jews (66%) and Arabs (33%), and among Jews there is a difference in Internet usage according to religious affiliation. The lowest rate of Internet usage was recorded in the Haredi population (35%). Among the Masorati (traditional religious) the rate of usage was 61%, among the secular it was 80%, and among the Orthodox the highest rate was measured – 84%.

As in the case of Israel’s residents generally, among Jerusalemites aged 20+ the most common use of the Internet was for the purposes of information seeking and email. Among Jerusalem’s computer users, 92% and 88% (respectively) reported that they use the computer for these purposes. Additional purposes were the downloading of files (58%) and discussion groups and chats (46%). Interestingly, many Jerusalemites also use the computer to access governmental services (38%), to shop (25%), and to make payments (23%).

Among Jerusalemites with mobile phones, 11% used the Internet through the phone, compared to 19% in Israel generally. The remainder opted not to use this service or had phones that lack this service. Presumably some of these are among the 39% of Jerusalem residents aged 20+ (27% among Israel’s residents) who claim that “the Internet is a waste of time.” Most Jerusalemites (65%) and Israeli residents (73%) held an opposite opinion, claiming that “use of the Internet is enjoyable.”



Source: Analysis of data from the Central Bureau of Statistics

Sunday, January 22, 2012

Eating Healthy

Aviel Yelinek

In recent years we have seen an increasing awareness of healthy nutrition. Every few months, new research findings shed light on various aspects of good nutrition such as recommended foods, foods that should be avoided, and vitamins and minerals whose consumption is especially important. Chain store shelves are stocked with new “health” products. If in the past we settled for eating a bread roll or pita, today we are exposed to a variety of breads made of whole wheat, rye, and various grains. Ingredients that were known to only a few in the past, such as Omega-3 or bifidobacteria (bio yogurts), have received widespread public recognition, and today they are being added to many foods as part of the effort to market these foods as “healthier” than the competition. “Healthy” foods such as quinoa or whole grain (brown) rice are popular in many households these days.

In this context, the 2010 Social Survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics provides interesting data regarding the nutrition habits of Jerusalem residents.

Dieticians advise eating breakfast because it is the most important meal of the day. Compared to residents of other major cities in Israel, Jerusalemites are the “healthiest” in this respect, and 66% of them are strict about eating breakfast every day. This figure compares to 61% of Haifa residents, 57% of Rishon LeZion residents, 55% of Israel’s residents, and 50% of Tel Aviv residents. Accordingly, the percentage of Jerusalemites who reported that they almost never eat breakfast (once a week or less often) was the lowest among the major cities, at 18%. This compares to 21% of Haifa residents, 24% of Israel’s residents, 28% of Rishon LeZion residents, and 31% of Tel Aviv residents.

Another question addressed eating habits regarding fruits and vegetables. Here too, Jerusalemites were found to be the “healthiest.” The percentage of Jerusalem residents who reported that they are extremely strict or very strict about eating fruits and vegetables stood at 74%. This is similar to Tel Aviv residents (74%) and higher than the figure for residents of Israel (68%), Haifa (67%), and Rishon LeZion (66%).

It is interesting to note that compared to residents of the other major cities, Jerusalemites are less strict about examining the nutritional ingredients on food packages. The percentage of Jerusalem residents who reported doing so frequently or sometimes stood at 49%, lower than the percentage for residents of Israel (57%), Tel Aviv and Rishon LeZion (65%), and Haifa (67%).



Source: Analysis of data from the Social Survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics.

Sunday, January 8, 2012

To smoke or not to smoke?


Inbal Doron

During 2010, the Social Survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics explored the issue of health in depth and collected a large amount of data about cigarette smoking in Israel. Approximately 1,270,000 individuals aged 20 and above reported that they currently smoke. This figure represents 27% of Israel’s population for the 20+ age group. Among these smokers, 64% are men and 36% are women. In Jerusalem, 105,000 individuals indicated that they currently smoke, representing 24% of the city’s population aged 20 and above. This is lower than the figures for Tel Aviv and Haifa, where the percentage of smokers among the population’s 20+ age group is 32% and 29% respectively. In Jerusalem the ratio of men among the smokers was relatively high (75%) compared to Tel Aviv (55%) and Haifa (58%).

The percentage of smokers in Jerusalem is not relatively high, but Jerusalemites smoke more cigarettes per day. Only 17% smoke fewer than five cigarettes per day, compared to 30% in Tel Aviv and 25% in Haifa. A total of 70% smoke more than 11 cigarettes per day, which is much higher than the figure for Tel Aviv (50%) or for Israel and Haifa (55%).

The data indicate that the starting age for smoking in Israel is quite young. Among today’s smokers aged 20 and above, 64% started smoking before age 18. In Jerusalem the percentage of smokers who started smoking before age 18 was 58%, in Tel Aviv it was 65%, and in Haifa 67%.

Today 39% of smokers in Jerusalem are trying to quit. Jerusalemites who had smoked in the past indicated that their main reason for quitting was a health problem or health concern (70%), family and societal pressure (8%), or an aesthetic problem (6%). Less than 1% indicated that they quit smoking because of the high financial cost.

And what about passive smoking? In 1983 a law was passed to prevent smoking and exposure to smoke in public places, including workplaces. Despite this, approximately 338,000 individuals in Jerusalem, representing 77% of the population aged 20 and above, reported on exposure to smoke in their workplaces. Among these, 45% are exposed to smoke to a large or very large extent. 





Source: Analysis of data from the Social Survey 2010, Central Bureau of Statistics