Tuesday, July 24, 2012

The Cellular Spring

Lior Lehrs 

The first cellular phone company began operating in Israel in 1986, and since that time the mobile phone appears to have significantly changed our lifestyle. The cellular communications market in Israel has recently been placed on the public agenda following a series of reforms and changes in this area that are intended to increase market competition and lower prices for the consumer. 

According to data of the 2010 social survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics, 91% of Israel’s residents had a mobile phone. This figure compares to 85% in 2006 and 77% in 2002. The percentage of mobile phone owners in Jerusalem was identical to the national average (91%) and slightly lower than the figure for Tel Aviv (92%), Haifa (93%), and Rishon LeZion (96%). The survey results indicate that the percentage of Jerusalem residents who made use of other functions of the mobile phone was lower than the percentage for other major cities in Israel. For example, the data indicate that the percentage of Jerusalemites who sent a text message during the month preceding the survey (among mobile phone owners) was 54%, compared to 79% among Tel Aviv residents and 66% in Haifa. The results were consistent for Internet use through the mobile phone: 12% in Jerusalem, as opposed to 23% in Tel Aviv and 21% in Haifa. Regarding camera use through the mobile phone, the results were 44% in Jerusalem, as opposed to 58% in Tel Aviv and 52% in Haifa. 

The data indicate that a correlation exists between level of religious observance and possession of a mobile phone in Israel. Within the Jewish population, the percentage of cell phone owners among the secular (95%) was higher than the percentage among the traditional religious (91%), the religious (90%), or the Haredi (86%). Within the non-Jewish population as well, the percentage of mobile phone owners among the non-religious (92%) was higher than among the religious (90%) or very religious (67%). Analysis by age group also reveals differences. For example, within the age group of 20-44 years, the percentage of mobile phone owners exceeded 95%. Among those aged 65-74 years the percentage was 81%, and for those aged 75 and above the percentage was 61%. 




Statistical source: Analysis of data from the social survey of the Central Bureau of Statistics

Thursday, July 5, 2012

Aliyah to Jerusalem

Eitan Bluer 

Ever since the State of Israel was founded, aliyah (Jewish immigration) to Israel has been regarded as one of the significant symbols of the state’s independence. Jerusalem, as the center of the Jewish world, constituted a source of attraction for new immigrants from around the world. During the past decade, the percentage of new immigrants who settled in Jerusalem, out of all immigrants to Israel, has very much increased. In 2011, a total of 2,200 new immigrants, accounting for 13% of all immigrants to Israel, settled in Jerusalem as their first place of residence. The number of immigrants who settled in Jerusalem in 2011 was higher than the numbers for Tel Aviv – 800 (5%) – and Haifa – 1,200 (7%). 

Jerusalem has less power of attraction for immigrants with limited resources. During the 1990s, therefore, when large numbers of immigrants arrived from former Soviet states, only 7% of all the immigrants to Israel chose to settle in Jerusalem. The changing characteristics of immigrants to Israel, and in particular the increase in percentage of immigrants from wealthy states (especially the United States and Western Europe) contributed to a significant increase since 2002 in the percentage of immigrants who choose Jerusalem as their first place of residence in Israel. In 2011, 36% of immigrants who settled in Jerusalem came from the United States, 20% from France, and only 12% from Russia. 

The socio-economic characteristics of immigrants who arrived during the 1990s and of those who arrived during the 2000s have influenced their choice of neighborhood. The preferred neighborhoods among immigrants who settled in Jerusalem during the 1990s were Pisgat Ze’ev, where immigrants who arrived during the 1990s accounted for 17% of the population, Neve Ya’akov (15%), and the French Hill (14%). In contrast, the preferred neighborhoods among immigrants who arrived during the first decade of the 2000s, most of whom came from the United States and France, were Talbiyeh, where new immigrants accounted for 14% of the population, the city center (14%), and Rehavia (13%). 



Sources: Press Release: “Immigrants to Jerusalem,” the Central Bureau of Statistics and the 2012 Statistical Yearbook of the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies